Home Contact Us
Index Purchase Info
About Site About Us
Appendices Credits
Further Reading Links
Special Features
By Keyword:

Page Number:
Click on an image to see a larger, more detailed picture.
Total Deaths from Nazi Genocidal Policies
Group Deaths
European Jews 5,600,000 to 6,250,000
Soviet prisoners of war 3,000,000
Polish Catholics 3,000,000
Serbians 700,000 (Croat Ustasa persecution)
Roma, Sinti, and Lalleri 222,000 to 250,000
Germans (political, religious, and Resistance) 80,000
Germans (handicapped) 70,000
Homosexuals 12,000
Jehovah’s Witnesses 2500


Death Camps (Poland)
Death Camps Jewish Deaths Commandant
Auschwitz-Birkenau 1.1 to 1.6 million Richard Bär, Lothar Hatjenstein, Rudolf Höss, Josef Kramer, Arthur Liebehenschel, Richard Baer, Heinrich Schwarz
Belzec 601,500 Christian Wirth, Gottlieb Hering
Chelmno 255,000 Hans Bothmann
Majdanek 360,000 Arthur Liebehenschel
Sobibór 250,000 Franz Reichleitner, Franz Stangl, Richard Thomalla
Treblinka 750,000 to 870,000 Kurt Franz, Franz Stangl


Internment and Transit Camps in Western Europe Under Nazi Occupation
  • Breendonck (internment): Belgian and “stateless” Jews deported to Mechelen.
  • Mechelen (transit): 26,000 Jews sent to concentration camps.
  • Beaune-la-Rolnade (internment)
  • Compiègne (transit): 12,000 Jews deported to Buchenwald and Dachau.
  • Drancy (transit): 74,000 indigenous and non-French Jews, and 5000 Belgian Jews, deported to Auschwitz, Majdanek, and Sobibór.
  • Gurs (collection camp): 6000 non-French Jews, mostly German, deported to Drancy.
  • Les Milles (transfer camp): 2000 inmates deported to Drancy and then on to Auschwitz.
  • Pithiviers (internment and transit): 3700 Jewish men deported to Auschwitz.
  • Rivesaltes (internment): German Jews, Roma, and Spanish Republicans deported to death camps.
  • Vittel (internment): 300 Jews sent to Drancy.
  • Fünfbrunnen (transit): Approximately 2000 Jews from Luxembourg and Jewish refugees were deported to death and concentration camps.
  • Vught (transit and punishment camp): 12,000 Jews deported to Westerbork.
  • Westerbork (internment): 89,000 Jews and 500 Roma deported to concentration and death camps in Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Poland.


Major Concentration and Labor Camps
Camp Location Jewish Deaths
Auschwitz I Oswieçim, Poland 1.6 million
Bergen-Belsen Hanover, Germany 50,000
Buchenwald Weimar, Germany 60,000 to 65,000
Dachau Munich, Germany 35,000
Dora-Nordhausen Harz Mountains, Germany 8125
   Mittelbau/Mittelwerk 20,000
Flossenbürg Upper Palatine, Bavaria 27,000
Gross-Rosen Lower Silesia, Germany 105,000
Janówska Lvov, Ukraine 40,000
Jasenovac Zagreb, Croatia 20,000
Kaiserwald Riga, Latvia 10,000
Klooga Tallinn, Estonia 2400
Mauthausen Linz, Austria 120,000
Natzweiler-Struthof Strasbourg, France 17,000
Neuengamme Hamburg, Germany 55,000
Ninth Fort Kovno, Lithuania 10,000
Pawiak Prison Warsaw, Poland 37,000
Plaszów Kraków, Poland 8000
Poniatowa Lublin, Poland 15,000
Ravensbrück Berlin, Germany 92,000
Sachsenhausen/Oranienburg Berlin, Germany 105,000
Sajmiste/Semlin Serbia 50,000
Sered Slovakia 13,500 (deported to Theresienstadt)
Stutthof Poland 65,000 to 85,000
Theresienstadt Prague, Czechoslovakia 33,430
Trawniki Lublin, Poland 10,000


Major Jewish Ghettos
Ghetto Country Population
Amsterdam Netherlands 100,000
Bedzin Poland 27,000
Bialystok Poland 35,000 to 50,000
Budapest Hungary 70,000
Chernovtsy Romania 50,000
Grodno Poland 25,000
Kovno/Kaunas Lithuania 40,000
Kraków Poland 19,000
Lida Belorussia 9000
Liepaja Latvia 7400
Lódz Poland 205,000
Lublin Poland 34,000
Lvov Ukraine 110,000
Minsk Belorussia 100,000
Mir Belorussia 2500
Novogrudok Belorussia 6000
Radom Poland 30,000
Riga Latvia 43,000
Salonika Greece 56,000
Shanghai* China 10,000
Ternopol Ukraine 12,500
Theresienstadt Czechoslovakia 90,000
Vitebsk Belorussia 16,000
Vilna Lithuania 41,000
Warsaw Poland 400,000 to 500,000
*The ghetto was administered by the Japanese occupational government with the assistance of the Jewish welfare organization.


Jews Killed During the Holocaust by Country
Country Jews Killed Perc. of Country’s Jews Killed
Albania 1
Austria 50,000 362
Belgium 25,000 603
Belorussia 245,000 65
Bohemia/Moravia 80,000 89
Bulgaria 11,400 144
Denmark 60 1.3
Estonia 1500 35
Finland 7 2.85
France 90,000 26
Germany 130,000 55
Great Britain 130 6
Greece 65,000 807
Hungary 450,000 70
Italy 7500 208
Latvia 70,000 77
Lithuania 220,000 94
Luxembourg 1950 50
The Netherlands 106,000 76
Norway 870 55
Poland 2,900,000 88
Russia 107,000 119
Romania 270,000 33
Slovakia 71,000 80
Switzerland 10
Ukraine 900,000 60
Yugoslavia 60,000 8011
1Between ten to 12 Jews were deported from Albania to Bergen-Belsen.
2When the Nazis annexed Austria in March 1938, there were 185,000 Jews living in the country. Thousands of Jews fled after the Anschluss and subsequent Kristallnacht pogrom in November 1938.
3Only 10% of the victims were citizens of Belgium prior to the war.
4The Jewish victims came exclusively from Thrace and Macedonia, territories awarded to Bulgaria by Hitler.
5Out of a Jewish population approaching 2000, a small number of Jewish refugees were deported to labor camps in Estonia.
6From 1941 to 1945, the British interned 1500 Jews destined for Palestine on Mauritius; 124 perished. In 1939, two Jews were killed by the British Navy when their ship was sunk attempting to enter Palestine. At least three Jews were deported to camps during the German occupation of Britain’s Channel Islands.
7Includes Corfu (1800), Rhodes (1540), and Salonika (42,000).
8Jews were deported during the Nazi occupation of Italy, which began in 1943.
9This estimate of Jewish victims is likely to increase, possibly by as much as 250,000, as scholars examine documents made available after the collapse of the former Soviet Union.
10The Swiss policy of refoulement, enforced from 1938 until July 7, 1944, curtailed the flow of Jewish refugees into Switzerland. Although approximately 30,000 Jews found refuge in or passed through Switzerland, at least 10,000 Jews were turned away. Although trains destined for concentration and death camps in the East were allowed to be routed through Switzerland, its prewar Jewish population of 12,000 was not turned over to the Nazis.
11Includes Jews from Bosnia, Croatia, Rab, and Serbia. Most Jews in the Italian Zone of Occupation were not deported or released to the Nazi or Ustasa.


Jewish Resistance
Area of Activity Organization Leadership
Algeria José Aboulker Family José Aboulker
Auschwitz-Birkenau Resistance, Sonderkommando revolt Battle Group Auschwitz, Jewish Sonderkommandos
Balkans and Austria Jewish Parachutists Yishuv Jews
Bedzin Ghetto underground Jewish Youth Groups
Bialystok Ghetto Jewish Anti-Fascist Bloc Mordechai Tenenbaum
France Armée Juivee Abraham Polonski & Lucien Lublin
France Jewish Scout Movement Robert Gamzon
Germany Baum Group Herbert & Marianne Baum
Italy Jewish Brigades Yishuv Jews
Kovno/Kaunas Ghetto Jewish Fighting Organization Young Zionists and Anti-Fascist Struggle Organization
Kraków Resistance Zionist Youth Movements & Jewish Fighting Organization
Lida Ghetto Bielski partisans Bielski Brothers
Lvov Ghetto Resistance/underground Tadek Drotorski
Minsk Ghetto partisan Hersh Smolar
Minsk Ghetto partisan Kazinets a.k.a. “Slavek”
Mir Ghetto underground & revolt Shmuel Rufeisin
Novogrudok Ghetto Bielski partisans Bielski brothers
Riga Ghetto underground “Secret Cells”
Sobibór death camp Resistance & revolt Aleksandr Pechersky & Leon Feldhandler
Treblinka death camp Resistance & revolt Dr. Julian Chorazycki, Marceli Galewski, & Zelo Bloch
Vilna Ghetto partisans Yehiel Scheinbaum
Vilna Ghetto underground/United Partisan Organization Josef Glazman & Yitzhak Wittenberg
Warsaw Ghetto Jewish Fighting Organization Mordecai Anielewicz, Zivia Lubetkin, Yitzhak Zuckerman
Warsaw Ghetto Jewish Military Union (Zionist Revisionists) Pawel Frenkiel


Jewish Immigration to Palestine, 1933–1948
Year Aliya Aliya Bet*
1933 30,327 467 (817)+
1934 42,359 NA
1935 61,854 NA
1936 29,727 NA
1937 10,536 69
1938 14,675 3041 (3079)1
1939 31,195 13,350 (15,217)2
World War II
1939 2899 (4029)
1940 10,643 5806 (8306)
1941 4592 800
1942 4206 0 (889)
1943 10,063 0 (0)3, 4
1944 15,552 3944 (4283)5, 6
1945 15,259
1945 989 (989)
1946 18,760 1197 (21,673)7
1947 22,098 2520 (25,191)
1948 17,165 189 (21,509)
*Aliya: legal immigration. Aliya bet: “illegal” immigration.
+The first number of the last column is the actual number of Jews who landed in Palestine. The number inside the parentheses represents the total number of Jews who attempted to enter Palestine.
1Evian Conference held from July 6 to 15, 1938.
2British White Paper implemented and enforced from May 17, 1939, until May 14, 1948.
3Bermuda Conference held in April 1943.
4Thousands of Jews were deported by the British to Athlit and Cyprus.
5War Refugee Board established on January 22, 1944.
6Thousands of Jews were shipped to British internment camps, and some were deported to Germany.
7Data includes immigration up to May 14, 1948; some Jews were detained on Cyprus until that date, when the state of Israel was established.
The Holocaust Chronicle
© 2002 Publications International, Ltd.